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11/9/2012

Borneo info more

Filed under: borneo,culture,disease/health,global islands,tourism — admin @ 3:23 pm

If you want to see how the Rungus people make gongs, you should head to Kampung Sumangkap Banggi: Sri Maliangin Homestead.

JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. JE occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Among an estimated 35,000–50,000 annual cases, 20%–30% of patients die, and 30%–50% of survivors have neurologic or psychiatric sequelae. No treatment exists. For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is very low but varies on the basis of destination, duration, season, and activities.

JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend a month or longer in endemic areas during the JEV transmission season and for laboratory workers with a potential for exposure to infectious JEV. JE vaccine should be considered for 1) short-term (<1 month) travelers to endemic areas during the JEV transmission season if they plan to travel outside of an urban area and will have an increased risk for JEV exposure; 2) travelers to an area with an ongoing JE outbreak; and 3) travelers to endemic areas who are uncertain of specific destinations, activities, or duration of travel. JE vaccine is not recommended for short-term travelers whose visit will be restricted to urban areas or times outside of a well-defined JEV transmission season.

Two JE vaccines are licensed in the United States. An inactivated mouse brain–derived JE vaccine (JE-VAX [JE-MB]) has been licensed since 1992 to prevent JE in persons aged ?1 year traveling to JE-endemic countries. Supplies of this vaccine are limited because production has ceased. In March 2009, an inactivated Vero cell culture-derived vaccine (IXIARO [JE-VC]) was licensed for use in persons aged ?17 years. JE-MB is the only JE vaccine available for use in children aged 1?16 years, and remaining supplies will be reserved for use in this group. Introduction

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Among an estimated 35,000–50,000 annual cases, approximately 20%–30% of patients die, and 30%–50% of survivors have neurologic or psychiatric sequelae. In endemic countries, JE is primarily a disease of children. However, travel-associated JE, although rare, can occur among persons of any age. For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is very low but varies based on destination, duration, season, and activities.

JEV is transmitted in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds. JEV is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, but disease develops in <1% of infected persons. JEV transmission occurs primarily in rural agricultural areas. In most temperate areas of Asia, JEV transmission is seasonal, and substantial epidemics can occur. In the subtropics and tropics, transmission can occur year-round, often intensifying during the rainy season.

This report provides recommendations for use of the two JE vaccines licensed in the United States for prevention of JE among travelers and laboratory workers. An inactivated mouse brain–derived JE vaccine (JE-MB) has been available since 1992 for use in travelers aged ?1 year. In March 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine (JE-VC) for use in persons aged ?17 years.

Origin

Rice wine, or lihing in the Kadazan-Penampang language, is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented glutinous rice. The origins of rice wine are unclear, but it is possible that it has been around for as long as modern man. The world over, people have transformed their staple foods and others into alcohol, and lihing is certainly none of the worst!

Fermentation Process

Rice wine is not an actual wine, which is defined as a beverage made of the naturally fermented juice of any of various kinds of grapes (Vitis vinifera). Rice wine, being made from a cereal, should actually be called a beer! However, there is an important difference in the brewing of beer when compared to rice wine: in the brewing of beer the mashing process converts starch to sugars; it is only after the mashing, which results in wort, that yeast is added to start the actual fermentation to produce alcohol. In rice wine the starch conversion to sugar and the fermentation happen at the same time (the so-called amylolytic process), making it considerably easier to produce though in chemical terms rice wine is not less complicated than beer.

Taste

The texture and taste of rice wine resemble often natural sweet wines such as Sauternes or, after aging, Sherries. Sometimes rice wine is also compared to ‘new wine’ (especially whites). This, plus the absence of carbon dioxide may be the reasons why rice wine is still called ‘wine’ and not ‘beer’. Rice wine can turn sour, or will turn sour for a number of reasons. If it is slightly acid it is still very much drinkable: it resembles apple cider! However, if it is too sour it is not enjoyable any more. The reasons for sour rice wine are numerous: insufficient hygiene during the making and / or fermentation process; contaminated yeast; contact with air etc.

Alcohol Content

Rice wine typically has a higher alcohol content (13-21%) than wine (10-20%), which in turn has a higher alcohol content than beer (3-8%).

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